EWIS is short for Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems and was introduced in September 2008 by European Aviation Safety Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration and requires holders of Type Certificates for large aircraft (CS-25-Certification Specifications for Large Aeroplane). An entirely new Subpart (Subpart H) has been added to CS-25.
The addition requires existing TC Holders to develop EWIS Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) derived from the Enhanced Zonal Analysis Procedure (EZAP) is imposed through the provisions of Part 21A.3B©1 for existing TCs, 21A.21©(3) for applicants for TC and 21A.103(a)(2)(iii) for applicants for changes to TC. All TC holders should have been notified of the applicability of those provisions through a dedicated letter in October 2008. FAR 26 has been introduced in the USA as the equivalent system requirement.
The applicant must conduct analyses if the STC requires a revision of the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) applicable to Electrical Wiring Interconnection System (EWIS) as defined below that include the following:
Maintenance and inspection requirements for the EWIS developed with the use of an Enhanced Zonal Analysis Procedure (EZAP) that includes:
a. Identification of each zone of the aeroplane.
b. Identification of each zone that contains EWIS.
c. Identification of each zone containing EWIS that also contains combustible materials.
d. Identification of each zone in which EWIS is in close proximity to both primary and back-up hydraulic, mechanical, or electrical flight controls and lines.
e. Identification of:
• Tasks, and the intervals for performing those tasks, that will reduce the likelihood of ignition sources and accumulation of combustible material, and
• Procedures, and the intervals for performing those procedures, that will effectively clean the EWIS components of combustible material if there is not an effective task to reduce the likelihood of combustible material accumulation.
f. Instructions for protections and caution information that will minimize contamination and accidental damage to EWIS, as applicable, during the performance of maintenance, alteration, or repairs.
The ICA must be in the form of a document appropriate for the information to be provided, and they must be easily recognizable as EWIS ICA.
Enhanced Zonal Analysis Procedures (EZAP)
Zonal Inspection is a collective term comprising selected Visual Inspections and Visual Checks that are applied to each zone, defined by access and area, to check system and power plant installations and structure for security and general condition.
Levels of inspection applicable to EWIS.
Detailed Inspection (DET).
An intensive examination of a specific item, installation or assembly to detect damage, failure or irregularity. Available lighting is normally supplemented with a direct source of good lighting at an intensity deemed appropriate. Inspection aids such as mirrors, magnifying lenses or other means may be necessary. Surface cleaning and elaborate access procedures may be required.
General Visual Inspection (GVI).
A visual examination of an interior or exterior area, installation or assembly to detect obvious damage, failure or irregularity. This level of inspection is made from within touching distance unless otherwise specified. A mirror may be necessary to enhance visual access to all exposed surfaces in the inspection area. This level of inspection is made under normally available lighting conditions such as daylight, hangar lighting, flashlight or droplight and may require removal or opening of access panels or doors. Stands, ladders or platforms may be required to gain proximity to the area being checked.
EWIS inspections may apply to the following components and systems:
(1) Wires and cables.
(2) Bus bars.
(3) The termination point on electrical devices, including those on relays, interrupters, switches, contactors, terminal blocks, and circuit breakers and other circuit protection devices.
(4) Connectors, including feed-through connectors.
(5) Connector accessories.
(6) Electrical grounding and bonding devices and their associated connections.
(7) Electrical splices.
(8) Materials used to provide additional protection for wires, including wire insulation, wire sleeving, and conduits that have electrical termination for the purpose of bonding.
(9) Shields or braids.
(10) Clamps and other devices used to route and support the wire bundle.
(11) Cable tie devices.
(12) Labels or other means of identification.
(13) Pressure seals.
(b) The definition in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph covers EWIS components inside shelves, panels, racks, junction boxes, distribution panels, and back-planes of equipment racks, including, but not limited to, circuit board back-planes, wire integration units and external wiring of equipment.
(c) Except for the equipment indicated in subparagraph (b) of this paragraph, EWIS components inside the following equipment, and the external connectors that are part of that equipment, are excluded from the definition in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph:
(1) Electrical equipment or avionics that is qualified to environmental conditions and testing procedures when those conditions and procedures are :
(i) Appropriate for the intended function and operating environment, and
(ii) Acceptable to the Agency.
(2) Portable electrical devices that are not part of the type design of the aeroplane. This includes personal entertainment devices and laptop computers.
(3) Fibre optics.